How does a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect children’s perceived self-competence and ultimately, teacher-rated social and academic behaviors at school? Does this diagnostic effect vary for children from high socioeconomic status (SES) as opposed to low-SES backgrounds?
Diagnosis can bring positives, like proper treatment, extra testing time, and social support, but may also trigger negatives, like stigmatization. Although rates of diagnosis are high across SES groups, the balance of positive and negative consequences of diagnosis may differ by SES. In high-SES communities, mental health diagnoses are less stigmatized and parents have greater ability to connect children to support resources, suggesting greater positive effects of diagnosis for high-SES children. Alternatively, the greater academic pressure present in high-SES communities may amplify the negative effects of mental health stigma, suggesting larger negative diagnostic effects.